A1C: A test to measure glucose buildup in the
blood over the previous 2 to 3 months.
Artery: A blood vessel that carries oxygenated
blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
Blood glucose: A type of sugar present in the
Blood glucose meter: A device that tests the
amount of glucose in the blood.
Blood pressure: The force created by blood
flow as it presses against blood vessel walls.
Blood vessels: Tubes that carry blood
throughout all parts of the body.
Carb: 15 grams of carbohydrates; equal to
one carbohydrate serving.
Carbohydrate: A nutrient in food that is
broken down into glucose during digestion.
Cardiovascular: Pertaining to the heart and
Cholesterol: A waxy, fat-like substance used
by the body to build cell walls. If too much
is present, it can build up and block arteries.
Chronic: Lifelong or ongoing. A chronic
condition, such as diabetes, can be managed
with treatment but not cured.
Complications: Serious health problems that
develop over time due to high blood glucose.
Diabetes: A condition in which the body
cannot produce insulin and/or use it properly.
Diabetes educator: An expert in teaching
people how to manage diabetes.
Digestive system: The body’s system (also known
as the digestive tract) that breaks down food
and absorbs it. The digestive system includes
the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine,
large intestine (colon), rectum, and anus.
Endocrinologist: A doctor who specializes
in how hormones work in the body.
Erectile dysfunction (ED): A condition in which a
man is unable to obtain or maintain an
Estimated average glucose (eAG): A number
value assigned to A1C test results.
Fast-acting carbohydrate: A type of
carbohydrate (including fruits, sugar, honey, or
glucose tablets) that raise blood glucose quickly.
Glucagon: A hormone that quickly raises
blood glucose levels.
Glucose: A simple form of sugar that is used
to fuel the body’s cells.
HDL: High-density lipoprotein, the “good” type
Heart disease: A condition that affects the
heart’s ability to function.
High blood pressure (hypertension): Blood
pressure that is higher than the normal range.
Hormone: A chemical released by special cells
that tells other cells what to do.
Hyperglycemia: A condition in which there
is too much glucose in the blood.
Hypoglycemia: A condition in which there
is not enough glucose in the blood.
Glossary of Terms